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[Bearing Knowledge] Bearings Do Not Run Smoothly?Consider These Four Issues First

[Bearing Knowledge] Bearings Do Not Run Smoothly?Consider These Four Issues First

Dec 07, 2019

【轴承知识】轴承运转不顺畅?先考虑解决这四个问题

[Bearing knowledge] Bearings do not run smoothly?Consider these four issues first

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导 读

Introduction

 

轴承在实际运转过程中,很多因素会导致轴承产生问题从而使机器出现故障,本文中列出了4种最为常见的原因,我们一起来看看。

During the actual operation of the bearing, many factors can cause the bearing to cause problems and cause the machine to fail. This article lists the 4 most common reasons. Let's take a look.

 

1 轴承过热 Bearing overheating

过热是轴承故障的最大元凶,主要是因为轴承发热一般是机器运转异常的警报信号,不尽快处理将会让机器损坏等连锁反应。

Overheating is the biggest culprit in bearing failure. Because bearing heating is generally an alarm signal for abnormal machine operation, failure to deal with it as soon as possible will cause chain reactions such as machine damage,etc.

常见引起轴承发热的原因有:Common causes of bearing heating are:

1.1 轴承精度低,选型不当 Low bearing accuracy and improper selection

轴承精度不达标或者选型上有差别,因机器满足不了最佳的运转条件,会直观导致轴承发热。

The bearing accuracy is not up to standard or there is a difference in selection. The machine cannot meet the optimal operating conditions, which will directly cause the bearing to heat up.

解决方法:选用官方要求规定精度等级的轴承。

Solution: Select bearings with official accuracy requirements.

 

1.2 振动异常 abnormal vibration

例如,联轴器找正工艺差不符合要求,转子存在动、静不平衡,基础刚性差、地脚虚,旋转失速和喘振。

For example, the tolerance in the process of correcting the coupling does not meet the requirements, the rotor has dynamic and static imbalances, the foundation rigidity is poor, the ground is weak, the rotation stall and surge are present.

有些转子在运行过程中由于受到介质的腐蚀或固体杂质的磨损,或者是轴出现弯曲,就会导致产生不平衡的离心力,从而使轴承发热、振动,滚道严重磨损,直至破坏。

Some rotors that are subject to the corrosion of the medium or the wear of solid impurities or the bending of the shaft, which will cause an unbalanced centrifugal force, which will cause the bearing to heat and vibrate, and the raceway will be seriously worn until it is damaged.

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1.3 冷却不足Insufficient cooling

冷却不足通常表现为:管路堵塞,冷却器选用不合适,冷却效果差等。

润滑管路的冷却器结垢堵塞,会致使冷却效果变差,特别是夏季生产。

冷却器结垢严重,轴承温度过高频繁报警的情况在很多生产现场都会遇到。

比较有效的处理办法是每年入夏之前对冷却器进行酸洗除垢。

Insufficient cooling usually manifests as blocked pipes, inappropriate selection of cooler, poor cooling effect, etc.

The fouling of the cooler of the lubricating pipeline will cause the cooling effect to deteriorate, especially in summer production.

The scale of the cooler block is serious, and the situation of frequent bearing temperature alarms will be encountered in many production sites.

A more effective treatment method is to pickle and descale the cooler before summer.

 

1.4 安装不当 Improper installation

安装不当是轴承发热的另一重要原因。因为轴承安装的正确与否,对其寿命和主机精度有着直接影响,故安装时要求轴与轴承孔的中心线必须重合。

Improper installation is another important cause of bearing heating. Because the correct installation of the bearing has a direct impact on its life and the accuracy of the spindle, it is required that the centerline of the shaft and the bearing hole coincide when installing.

如果轴承安装不正,精度低,轴承存在挠度,转动时就会产生力矩,引起轴承发热或磨损。另外,轴承还会产生振动,噪声增大,也会使温升递增。

If the bearing is not installed correctly, the accuracy is low, the bearing has deflection, and a torque will be generated when it rotates, causing the bearing to heat or over wear. In addition, bearings will also generate vibration and increase noise, which will also increase the temperature.

 

2 灰尘和污染 dust and pollution

在精密机器、电机等对环境高要求的设备上,空气中的各类悬浮颗粒会进入轴承工作环境,并产生各种危害。腐蚀性颗粒可能磨损部件,导电颗粒可能干扰部件电流。而颗粒一旦积聚堵塞轴承周边,又会加速过热。显然,选择正确的IP防护等级一定程度上可以缓解该问题。

On precision equipment, motors and other equipment with high environmental requirements, all types of suspended particles in the air will enter the bearing working environment and cause various hazards. Corrosive particles can wear components and conductive particles can interfere with component current. Once the particles accumulate and block the periphery of the bearing, it will accelerate overheating. Obviously, choosing the right IP protection level can alleviate this problem to some extent.

在户外设备或条件一般的环境中,虽然整套轴承系统有相应的保护,但也要尽可能保护,免收砂石、粉尘的二次伤害。另外,户外容易潮湿,湿气会侵蚀轴承部件。当潮湿和空气中的颗粒污染物混合起来,更是对轴承的致命伤,进一步缩短机器寿命。

In outdoor equipment or in an environment with normal conditions, although the entire bearing system has corresponding protection, it should also be protected as much as possible to prevent secondary damage from sand and gravel. In addition, it is easy to get wet in outdoors and moisture can erode bearing components. When the humidity and particulate pollutants in the air are mixed, it is a fatal injury to the bearing and further shortens the life of the machine.

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3 电流问题 electricity Problem

高频开关和脉冲宽度调制引起的谐波电流可能导致电压和电流失真,过载和过热。从而缩短机器及轴承的寿命,增加长期设备成本。

Harmonic currents caused by high-frequency switching and pulse-width modulation can cause voltage and current distortion, overload, and overheating. This shortens the life of the machine and bearings and increases long-term equipment costs.

损伤总是由局部放电引起的,轴承内环槽和钢球之间的油膜起到了电介质的作用(电容器),由轴承电流充电。

Damage is always caused by partial discharge. The oil film between the inner ring groove of the bearing and the steel ball acts as a dielectric (capacitor) and is charged by the bearing current.

一旦电压足够高,短路放电,这种定期放电会腐蚀金属,转子的转速会加速影响腐蚀。较高的旋转产生较厚的油膜,电压越高,伤害越大;在低速时油膜“接触”区域更大,受损的风险要低得多。速度越高,额定功率越高,直流电压越高,损坏的风险就越大。

Once the voltage is high enough to short-circuit discharge, this periodic discharge will corrode the metal, and the speed of the rotor will accelerate and affect the corrosion. Higher rotation produces a thicker oil film, and the higher the voltage, the greater the damage; at low speeds, the oil film "contacts" a larger area and the risk of damage is much lower. The higher the speed, the higher the rated power, and the higher the DC voltage, the greater the risk of damage.

损坏的钢球表面一旦被腐蚀,将导致内外环的永久振动。

Once the damaged steel ball surface is corroded, it will cause permanent vibration of the inner and outer rings.

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4 润滑不当 improper lubrication

润滑是保证轴承正常运转的必要条件。润滑对滚动轴承的疲劳寿命和摩擦、磨损、振动等有重要的影响,40%左右的轴承损坏都与润滑不良有关。轴承润滑的目的是使轴承滚动面间形成一层油膜,以防止金属与金属直接接触。

Lubrication is a necessary condition to ensure the normal operation of the bearing. Lubrication has an important impact on the fatigue life and friction, wear and vibration of roller bearings. About 40% of bearing damage is related to poor lubrication. The purpose of bearing lubrication is to form an oil film between the rolling surfaces of the bearings to prevent direct metal-to-metal contact.

 润滑对滚动轴承的作用如下:

The effect of lubrication on rolling bearings is as follows:

a. 减轻摩擦及磨损,延长轴承的寿命;Reduce friction and wear and extend bearing life

b.排出摩擦热,防止轴承温升过高;Dissipate frictional heat to prevent the bearing temperature from rising too high

c.防止异物侵入,起到密封的作用;Prevent foreign objects from invading and play a role of sealing

d.防止金属锈蚀 Prevents metal corrosion.

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其他轴承问题,随时联系褚福盖。

For any other bearings issues, freely get in touch with Mr Gavin Chu(gavinchu@sunrises-group.com, www.frdbearing.com )





备注[转自轴承百科]

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